TABLE 1
Descriptive Statistics and Zero-Order Correlations

Variables

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1. Inbound Logistics                            
2. Operations .71***                          
3. Outbound Logistics .85*** .65***                        
4. Marketing/Sales .62*** .38*** .59***                      
5. Service .69*** .69*** .84*** .56****                    
6. International work experience .18 .37** .11 .08 .15                  
7. Low cost -.04 -.04 -.03 .06 -.01 -.02                
8. Product differentiation .16 .16 .15 .13 .14 .13 .50***              
9. Marketing differentiation .14 -.16 .00 -.01 -.14 -.06 -.10 -.13            
10. Innovation -.35** -.11 -.38** -.34** -.34** .25* -.17 .25* -.11          
11. Size .58*** .38** .57*** .43*** .55*** -.15 .22* -.22 .18 -.66***        
12. Leverage -.25* -.26* -.27* -.20 -.32** -.24* .05* -.06 .23* .05 -.29*      
13. Industry growth (1989-1991) -.15 -.07 .00 .00 .08 -.10 .02 .00 -.06 -.02 -.14 .14    
14. Industry profitability (1989-1991) -.18 -.08 -.16 -.15 -.01 -.12 -.45*** .26* -.13 -.10 -.08 .16 -.04  
Mean .21 .21 .20 .41 .18 .56 .10 .92 .08 .30 1668 -2.04 .33 .42
Standard deviation .41 .41 .40 .50 .39 .85 .30 .28 .28 .35 6512 33.81 .30 .10

aFor size the correlations are for the log of employees, while the mean and standard deviation represent number of employees.
*p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001

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TABLE 2
Paired Sample T-Test

  Mean SE N Difference SE of Difference p value of t-test
Downstream .2951 .050 61 .0874 .033 <.01
Upstream .2077 .048        

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TABLE 3
Results of Logit Analysis

Using "No Internationalization" of respective value-chain activities as the reference class

  Independent Variables Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales Service  
Predictors              
  International Work Experience 2.16* 1.58** 2.16* .48 1.82+  
  Low Cost 5.93 4.14 5.45 -.26 4.73  
  Product Differentiation -7.50 -2.97 -4.27 -2.19* -3.51  
  Marketing Differentiation -1.60 4.92 .53 -.15 4.93  
  Innovation -6.88 1.12 -13.63* -3.51* -8.21+  
  Size 3.56** 2.72* 2.46* 1.11+ 2.73*  
Control              
  Leverage -.03 .01 -.03 -.03 -.07  
  Industry Sales Growth -1.50 .07 1.32 .01 2.24  
  Industry Gross Profit 17.87* -5.12 -14.74* -8.98* -5.99  
-2 log likelihood   17.07 31.65 19.79 47.16 20.59
df   9 9 9 9 9  
p value of chi square statistics   .0000 .0035 .0001 .0048 .0004  

+ p<.10, one-tailed tests
* p<.05, one-tailed tests
* * p<.01, one-tailed tests

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Last Updated 1/15/97 by Geoff Goldman & Dennis Valencia

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