Chapter Listing | Return to 1997 Topical Index 


Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D.L. Sexton & R.W. Smilor (eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship, pp.
    3-24. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Begley, T.M. & Boyd, D.P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of Business
    Venturing, 2, 79-93.

Brockhaus, R.H. & Horowitz, P.S. (1986). The psychology of the entrepreneur. In D.L. Sexton & R.W. Smilor (eds.), The art and science of entrepreneurship,
    pp. 25-48. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

Carland, J.W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W.R., & Carland, J.A.C. (1984). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. Academy of
    Management Review, 9, 354-359. Davidsson, P. (1995). Culture, structure and regional levels of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship and Regional
    Development, 7, 41-62.

Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Geertz, C. (1963). Peddlars and princes: Social development and economic change in two Indonesian towns, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hayashi, S. (1988). Culture and management in Japan, (trans. by Frank Baldwin), Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.

Huisman, D. (1985). Entrepreneurship: Economic and cultural influences on the entrepreneurial climate. European Research (Special section), 13, 10-17.

Hwang, K.K. (1987). Face and favor: The Chinese power game. American Journal of Sociology, 92, 944-974.

Kolvereid, L. & Obloj, K. (1994). Entrepreneurship in emerging versus mature economies: An exploratory survey. International Small Business Journal, 12,

Lee, C. & Bobko, P. (1994). Self-efficacy beliefs: Comparison of five measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 364-369.

Liles, P. R. (1974). New business venture and the entrepreneur, Homewood, IL: Irwin.

Low, M.B. & MacMillan, I.C. (1988). Entrepreneurship: Past research and future challenges. Journal of Management, 14, 139-161.

McGrath, R.G., McMillan, I.C., & Scheinberg, S. (1992). Elitists, risk-takers, and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural differences between
    entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 115-135.

McGrath, R.G., McMillan, I.C., Yang, E.A.Y., & Tsai, W. (1992). Does culture endure, or is it malleable? Issues for entrepreneurial economic development.
    Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 441-458.

Mole, R. L. (1973). Thai values and behavior patterns, Rutland, VT: Charles Tuttle.

Ray, D.M. (1994). The role of risk taking in Singapore. Journal of Business Venturing, 9, 157-177.

Ray, D. & Turpin, D. (1987). Factors influencing entrepreneurial events in Japanese high technology venture business. In N. Churchill, J. Hornaday, B. Kirchhoff,
    O. Krasner, & K. Vesper (eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research 1987, Wellesley, MA: Babson College.

Redding, S. G. (1993). Cultural effects in the marketing process in South-east Asia. In T. D. Weinshall (ed.) Societal culture and management, pp. 217-232.
    New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Shane, S., Kolvereid, L., & Westhead, P. (1991). An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm formation across country and gender. Journal of
    Business Venturing, 6, 431-446.

Shapero, A. & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship.  In C.A. Kent, D.L. Sexton, & K.H. Vesper (eds.) Encyclopedia of
    entrepreneurship, pp. 72-90. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


Socio-Cultural Items Included in the Questionnaire

In the questionnaire items below, please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement.  For example, if you strongly agree with a particular statement, you would write the number 7 next to that statement.

1 = Strongly disagree     2 = Disagree    3 = Slightly disagree     4 = Neither agree nor disagree
5 = Slightly agree      6 = Agree      7 = Strongly agree

1. _____ In this country, running your own firm gives you high social status. (SS)
2. _____ Our society places a high value on innovativeness. (I)
3. _____ When a company fails, this brings much shame to the company owner. (SF)
4. _____ In this country, work is very important to most people. (VW)
5. _____ People in this country look up to those who run their own firms. (SS)
6. _____ In this country, most people place a high value on recreation and relaxation. (VW) [r]
7. _____ People who invent new things are highly respected in this country. (I)
8. _____ It is alright to start a business, but it is not acceptable to fail. (SF)
9. _____ In this country, people focus much of their energy on succeeding in work. (VW)
10. _____ An owner whose company fails brings much shame to his/her family. (SF)
11. _____ Starting a new business generates a lot of respect. (SS)
12. _____ People who try to do new things in this country usually face disapproval. (I) [r]
13. _____ In our society, starting your own new business does not bring much prestige. (SS) [r]
14. _____ Operating within existing rules and regulations is the best way to succeed in this
  country. (I) [r]
15. _____ People may avoid starting a business because they fear the shame they would face if
  they failed. (SF)
16.  _____ In this country, people work in order to make enough money to enable them to do
 things they really enjoy. (VW) [r]

SS=Social status of entrepreneurship
I=Value society places on innovation
SF=Shame of failure
VW=Value of work
[r]=reverse scored
Top of page | Chapter Listing | Return to 1997 Topical Index

© 1997 Babson College All Rights Reserved
Last Updated 02/19/98