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Socio-Cultural Items Included in the Questionnaire
In the questionnaire items below, please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement. For example, if you strongly agree with a particular statement, you would write the number 7 next to that statement.
1 = Strongly disagree 2 = Disagree
3 = Slightly disagree 4 = Neither agree nor disagree
5 = Slightly agree 6 = Agree 7 = Strongly agree
1. _____ In this country, running your own firm gives you high social
2. _____ Our society places a high value on innovativeness. (I)
3. _____ When a company fails, this brings much shame to the company owner. (SF)
4. _____ In this country, work is very important to most people. (VW)
5. _____ People in this country look up to those who run their own firms. (SS)
6. _____ In this country, most people place a high value on recreation and relaxation. (VW) [r]
7. _____ People who invent new things are highly respected in this country. (I)
8. _____ It is alright to start a business, but it is not acceptable to fail. (SF)
9. _____ In this country, people focus much of their energy on succeeding in work. (VW)
10. _____ An owner whose company fails brings much shame to his/her family. (SF)
11. _____ Starting a new business generates a lot of respect. (SS)
12. _____ People who try to do new things in this country usually face disapproval. (I) [r]
13. _____ In our society, starting your own new business does not bring much prestige. (SS) [r]
14. _____ Operating within existing rules and regulations is the best way to succeed in this
country. (I) [r]
15. _____ People may avoid starting a business because they fear the shame they would face if
they failed. (SF)
16. _____ In this country, people work in order to make enough money to enable them to do
things they really enjoy. (VW) [r]
SS=Social status of entrepreneurship
I=Value society places on innovation
SF=Shame of failure
VW=Value of work