Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research
1997 Edition

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PROACTIVENESS VERSUS COMPETITIVE AGGRESSIVENESS:  TEASING APART KEY DIMENSIONS OF AN ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION1
G. T. Lumpkin, University of Illinois at Chicago
Gregory G. Dess, University of Kentucky


INTRODUCTION
THEORY DEVELOPMENT AND HYPOTHESES
METHOD
    Research Instrument
    Sample
    Analysis
FINDINGS
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
REFERENCES
 

ABSTRACT

An entrepreneurial orientation (EO) consists of entrepreneurial processes including innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness, and competitive aggressiveness.  Prior research has often regarded the dimensions proactiveness and competitive aggressiveness as synonymous. In contrast, this paper argues that proactiveness and competitive aggressiveness are distinct concepts that may not covary and are differentially related to performance.  Factor analysis of 52 firms indicates that proactiveness and competitive aggressiveness represent separate factors.  Correlational analysis suggests that these two dimensions may vary independently and are uniquely related to performance. 

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