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TABLE 2
Frequency of  Motivational Influence Pairings  (n=291)    

  Econ. Necess. Job Statisf. Social Status  Power Wealth Achiev. Opport. Indep. Career Secure
con. ecess                  
Job tatisf. 32 (11%)                
Social tatus 4 (1.37%) 0              
Power 0 0 1 (0.34%)            
Wealth 12 (4.12%) 9 (3.09%) 2 (0.68%) 4 (1.37%)          
chieve 63 (21.6%) 46 (15.8%) 3 (1.03%) 1 (0.34%) 30 (10.3%)        
Opport 63 (21.6%) 25 (8.59%) 4 (1.37%) 1 (0.34%) 16 (5.49%) 32 (11.0%)      
Indep 79 (27.1%) 44 (15.1%) 3 (1.03%) 1 (0.34%) 37(12.7%) 93 (32.0%) 53 (18.2%)    
Career Secure. 32 (11.0%) 9 (3.09%) 1 (0.34%) 0 5 (1.72%) 20 (6.87%) 22 (7.56%) 18 (6.19%)   

 

Independence with achievement (both pull-motivations) is the most frequent combination (32%), followed by economic necessity / independence (27.1%), economic necessity / achievement (21.6%), and economic necessity / opportunity (21.6%). The low (or absent) pairings involving power or social status might be due to 50 years of a social structure that de-emphasized individual power and status for the good of the collective society.

Motivational influences currently manifested in Hungary have changed significantly within the past six years, reflecting the effects of continued economic and political uncertainty.  While motivational priorities are substantially similar to the 1996 exploratory study (Solymossy, 1996), there is a marked difference from the 1990 study (Hisrich and Vecs'nyi, 1990).  While direct comparison is arguable due to differing survey instruments, this study confirms the emergence of survival (economic necessity) as strong motivator.  The lure of wealth has diminished in importance (current primary motivation 3.6%), while economic necessity, an extreme push motivation, is now most prevalent, a reversal from it?s previous irrelevance. While this is a significant change, it is not surprising.  In 1989, economic necessity was not a reason to initiate a venture.  The socialist economic system virtually guaranteed full employment.  In December 1990 (one year after the commencement of reforms),  the unemployment rate was 1.7% (Central Statistical Office of Hungary), however by 1994, the rate had risen to 12.3% (Okolicsanyi, 1994).  Economic deterioration continues, and as of the end of 1996, the Central Statistical Office of Hungary estimates the official unemployment rate (which excludes those ineligible for further state, and those that will not accept offered employment) at close to 20%. Comparing these findings with comparable studies of Irish (Hisrich, 1988), and U.S. entrepreneurs (Gatewood et al., 1995),  contrasts and response patterns are made manifest.
 

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