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TABLE 4
Regression Results
 

  Income Adj. R2 Anova F sig .00897 .2005  Empltrnd Adj. R2 Anova F sig  .01748 .1158  Satisf Adj. R2 Anova F sig .05636 .0006  $Satisf Adj. R2 Anova F sig  .03334 .0125
Section 1  Coeff  Sig T Coeff Sig T Coeff Sig T Coeff Sig T
EconNec1  -.059707  .5225  -.181726 .0819  -.256400 .0043  -.146428  .1046
Independence1   .072835 .2271  -.039697 .6361  -.047210  .5178  .042465  .5670
Achievement1  .078813  .3268   .038322  .6695   .011626  .8815  .074000  .3472
Job Satisfaction1 -.070887  .3346  -.134823  .1177  -.090948  .2064   .008335 .9092
Career Security1  .061023   .2818   .044868  .4681 .053608 .3244 .095997 .0834
Opportunity1  -.056869  .4168 -.029881 .6990 .044713 .5061 -.053898 .4303
Power1  -.006738 .9065 .045907 .4659 .076461 .1650 .066807 .2320
  Income Adj. R2  Anova F sig  .00897 .2005  Empltrnd Adj. R2 Anova F sig  .00897 .2005  Satisf Adj. R2 Anova F sig  .00897 .2005  $Satisf Adj. R2 Anova F sig  .07002 .0001
Section 2  Coeff Sig T Coeff Sig T Coeff Sig T Coeff Sig T
Econ. Nec.  -.056236 .3569 -.009639 .8867 -.190699 .0013 -.103589 .0785
Independence .100335 .1007 .083690 .2176 .087574 .1422 .204731 .0006
Achievement  .068219 .2735 .084368 .2243 .008501 .8889 .067106 .2664
Job Satisfaction  .029971 .6104 -.056563 .3902 -.021467 .7058 .059569 .2929
Career Security  .172762  .0038 .006829 .9183 .069655 .2252 .080222 .1617
Opportunity  -.021242 .7377 .030239 .6689 .054905 .3731 .011336 .8522
Power .080204 .1618 .066487 .2895 .149780 .0071 .161997 .0035

 

More rigorous testing to assess the difference between pull-motivated and push-motivated entrepreneurs was conducted by MANOVA analysis, within SPSS.  Correlations between the identified performance measures were first examined, confirming that each was assessing a unique aspect of performance and did not exhibit excessive correlations to the other measures (Table 5).   While satisfaction with the standard of living provided is moderately correlated with both general satisfaction (.53) and income (.52), these are not deemed to be excessive.

Expanding success  into four dimensions by adding measures of material and general satisfaction does, on the other hand, reveal statistically significant group differences (.007 at .93 power level).  Once again, the underlying assumptions of independence of assumptions and homogeneity of variance were assessed; Boxs M test is not significant, and while the general satisfaction variable marginally violates the assumption of independence, the other indicators do not.  This singular violation was not deemed as invalidating subsequent interpretation.  Using the expanded multidimensional measure of venture success, pull-motivated entrepreneurs report higher average income, demonstrate a slightly higher tendency for employment growth, and are more satisfied, both in general and by the standard of living provided by their venture.  While all four indicators demonstrate significance, it is notable that traditional performance measures of income and employment trend fail to demonstrate sufficient power to preclude a type II statistical error.  The satisfaction indicators, on the other hand, exhibit acceptable discriminatory power (.9771 for general satisfaction, .8054 for standard of living satisfaction). (See table 6).

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